Chapter 1. Energy: Conceptual Foundation and Laws that Govern its Transformation
Recognizing various forms of energy and understanding the scientific principles involved in the transformations that take place between these energy categories is fundamental to scientific understanding at any level of inquiry. Energy is found in the form of molecular motion, electrical energy, nuclear energy, electromagnetic energy, kinetic energy of macroscopic objects, gravitational energy, etc. The scientific principles that govern energy at the molecular level are linked to the behavior of energy at the global level. This establishes a foundation defining the central importance of energy for each of the subsequent chapters.
Chapter 2. Atomic and Molecular Structure: Energy from Chemical Bonds
How is the energy contained in the chemical bond extracted to produce useful work at the molecular level? Why is virtually all of the energy contained in a chemical bond lost as heat under some circumstances, but is effectively channeled to build new and complex molecules in other instances? How is the chemical energy of one reaction coupled to subsequent chemical reactions leading to the formation of a desired chemical product? These questions are explored by first developing the concepts central to atomic structure and chemical bonding.
Chapter 3. Thermochemistry: Development of the First Law of Thermodynamics
The First Law of Thermodynamics is the law of conservation of energy: heat and work are both forms of energy. In any process, energy can be converted from one form to another, but it is never created nor destroyed. In order to understand and apply the First Law, we must develop a clear understanding of the distinction between temperature, heat, work and the thermal energy contained within the system under study. These ideas are developed quantitatively such that they can be applied to chemical reactions, heat engines, and phase changes.
Chapter 4. Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
Nature is driven by spontaneous processes, processes that proceed without external intervention. With our advancing understanding of energy, with the insight brought by the First Law of Thermodynamics, and with our ability to track energy transformations from highly organized forms of energy that inexorably cascade to disorganized thermal energy, comes a sharpened recognition that there are other factors that drive spontaneous processes in nature. This constitutes the imperative for understanding entropy.
Chapter 5. Equilibria and Free Energy
A chemical system in equilibrium, aA + bB ←→ cC + dD, represents an unchanging combination of macroscopic properties: concentrations, pressure, temperature, etc. There are no apparent changes with time. The equilibrium state thus determines the extent to which a reaction takes place. But at the molecular level, the situation is far different. In this section we quantitatively couple the concept of Gibbs Free Energy with the concept of chemical equilibrium.
Chapter 6. Equilibria in Solution
The role of proton transfer—the transfer of a hydrogen ion, H+, from one species to another, often involving water as a solvent—is a theme of broad importance. The proton, as we will see, organizes the molecular level structure of liquid water, controls life’s biochemical pathways, is held in delicate control in the blood of all organisms, constructs and deconstructs polymers, and aids in the synthesis of exquisite calcium containing structures at the intersection of organic and inorganic architectures in living systems. This section links the behavior of acids and bases to Gibbs Free Energy.
Chapter 7. Electrochemistry
The study of the union between chemistry and electricity—the flow of electrons driven spontaneously by Free Energy release in a chemical reaction—has provided a rich history of remarkable discoveries. These studies constitute the discipline of electrochemistry, a subject that has experienced a dramatic rebirth. That rebirth has been propelled by the emergence of energy production and storage as a dominant problem confronting both science and public policy. New developments in electric automobiles are linked to important developments to control the release of carbon to the atmosphere.