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Biology XI Part-II

NCERT via Swayam


The reductionist approach to study of life forms resulted in increasing use of physio-chemical concepts and techniques. Majority of these studies employed either surviving tissue model or straightaway cell free systems. An explosion of knowledge resulted in molecular biology. Molecular physiology became almost synonymous with biochemistry and biophysics. However, it is now being increasingly realised that neither a purely organismic approach nor a purely reductionistic molecular approach would reveal the truth about biological processes or living phenomena. Systems biology makes us believe that all living phenomena are emergent properties due to interaction among components of the system under study. Regulatory network of molecules, supra molecular assemblies, cells, tissues, organisms and indeed, populations and communities, each create emergent properties. This course brings to you the chapters various physiological processes like digestion, exchange of gases, blood circulation, locomotion and movement, coordination and regulation of body events at the organismic level.The description of structure and variation of living organisms over a period of time, ended up as two, apparently irreconcilable perspectives on biology. The two perspectives essentially rested on two levels of organisation of life forms and phenomena. One described at organismic and above level of organisation while the second described at cellular and molecular level of organisation. The first resulted in ecology and related disciplines. The second resulted in physiology and biochemistry. Description of physiological processes, in flowering plants as an example, is what is given in the chapters in this unit. The processes of mineral nutrition of plants, photosynthesis, transport, respiration and ultimately plant growth and development are described in molecular terms but in the context of cellular activities and even at organism level. Wherever appropriate, the relation of the physiological processes to environment is also discussed.


Chapter No.

Module No.

Module Name

Chapter 11

Module 1

Transport in plants (Short distance transport) – Part 1

Module 2

Transport in plants (Long distance transport in xylem): Part – 2

Module 3

Transport in plants (Phloem translocation): Part– 3

Chapter 12

Module 4

Plant Physiology (Mineral Nutrition): Part – 1

Module 5

Plant Physiology (Mineral Nutrition): Part – 2

Chapter 13

Module 6

Early Experiments: Part – 1

Module 7

Light Reactions of Photosynthesis: Part – 2

Chapter 14

Module 8

Respiration in Plants: Part – 1

Module 9

Respiration in Plants: Part – 2

Module 10

Respiration in Plants: Part – 3

Chapter 15

Module 11

Plant Growth and Development: Part – 1

Module 12

Plant Growth and Development: Part – 2

Module 13

Plant Growth and Development: Part – 3

Chapter 16

Module 14

Digestive System: Part – 1

Module 15

Digestive System: Part – 2

Module 16

Absorption of digested foods and disorders of digestive system: Part – 3

Chapter 17

Module 17

Respiratory System: Part – 1

Module 18

Mechanism of Respiration: Part – 2

Chapter 18

Module 19

Body Fluids and Circulation: Part – 1

Module 20

Body Fluids and Circulation: Part – 2

Module 21

Body Fluids and Circulation: Part – 3

Module 22

Body Fluids and Circulation: Part – 4

Chapter 19

Module 23

Excretory Products and Their Elimination: Part – 1

Module 24

Excretory Products and Their Elimination: Part – 2

Chapter 20

Module 25

Locomotion and Movement: Part – 1

Module 26

Locomotion and Movement: Part – 2

Module 27

Locomotion and Movement: Part – 3

Module 28

Locomotion and Movement: Part – 4

Chapter 21

Module 29

Neural Control and Coordination: Part – 1

Module 30

Neural Control and Coordination: Part – 2

Module 31

Neural Control and Coordination: Part – 3

Module 32

Neural Control and Coordination: Part – 4

Chapter 22

Module 33

Endocrine glands in humans: General Physiology: Part – 1

Module 34

Endocrine glands of Reproductive System; Endocrine Cells and Tissues in humans: Part – 2

Module 35

Mechanism of Hormone Action: Part – 3

Final Assessment

Taught by

Dr. Sunita Farkya

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