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Online Course

Fundamentals of Compressible Flow

Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati and NPTEL via Swayam


Gas Dynamics is a topic of fundamental interest to Mechanical and Aerospace engineers that provides a link between core subjects i.e. “Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics”. It pertains the basic theory of compressible flow, formation of shock waves and expansion waves, nozzle flows. The treatment of the syllabus becomes the backbone of aerodynamic engineers towards research in the design of high-speed vehicles. The contents of the course starts with fluid and thermodynamic fundamentals followed by governing theories of compressible flow phenomena. Many aerodynamic high-speed facilities and their measurement diagnostics governed by these theories, are also covered in this course.

Undergraduate and Postgraduate students of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Faculty member associated with Mechanical/Aerospace Streams; Practicing engineers and Scientists in Aeronautics and Space TechnologyPREREQUISITES : Fundamentals of “Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics”INDUSTRIES SUPPORT :Practicing Engineers, Scientists in Aeronautics and Space Technology, Researchers working in the area of “Compressible Flow” will be benefited from this course.



Week 1: Review Concepts of Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics:Introduction to fluids, Concepts of continuum, Forces acting on the fluid, Description of fluid motion, Kinematic properties of fluid, Review and fundamental aspects of ThermodynamicsWeek 2: Wave Propagation in Compressible Medium: Introduction to compressible flow, Governing equations for one dimensional flow, Acoustic speed and Mach number, Stagnation and characteristics properties, Flow Regimes, Mach waves, Pressure disturbances in compressible fluid, Development of compression and expansion wavesWeek 3: Quasi-One Dimensional Isentropic Flow:Governing Equations, Area-velocity relation and isentropic flow through variable area ducts, Concepts of nozzle and diffuser for compressible flow, Convergent-Divergent nozzle, Subsonic flow in a convergent-divergent nozzleWeek 4: Normal Shock Waves: One-dimensional equations for stationary normal shock, Entropy change across a normal shock, Crocco’s Theorem, Hugoniot equation, Moving normal shock and reflected shock waves
Week 5: Expansion Waves and Oblique Shocks: Two-dimensional waves, Flow equations for Prandtl-Meyer expansion fan, Equation of motion for straight oblique shock wave, Oblique shock relations, Concepts of attached and detached shock wavesWeek 6: Interaction of Shocks and Expansion Waves: Reflection and interaction of shocks and expansion wave; Supersonic flow in converging-diverging nozzle
Week 7: Compressible Flow with Friction and Heat Transfer: Flow in a constant area duct with friction, Fanno line flow and its working relations, Flow with heating and cooling in a constant area duct, Rayleigh flow and its working relationsWeek 8: Measurement Diagnostics and Experimental Facilitates for Compressible Flow: Pressure and temperature measurements, Concepts of flow visualization, Introduction to high speed wind tunnels, shock tubes and shock tunnels

Taught by

Prof. Niranjan Sahoo

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