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Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

Fundamentals of Optical Fiber Technology

Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati and NPTEL via Swayam

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Optical Fiber Technology has transformed (and continues to transform) handling of information and telecommunications to the present day's terabit communication links since the breakthrough discovery in 1966 by Nobel Laureate (2009) Charles K Kao. Emergence of specialty fibers has given further thrust in designing and developing high capacity active/passive optical devices within the communication link. Owing to the ever growing demand of information & high-capacity broadband communication link, complex & multi-facet applications of optical fiber and the need for based all-optical ultra-sensitive devices, a wide area of application oriented research & development (R&D) needs to be explored. To be a shareholder of this high impact, technology-to-door R&D advancement, it is extremely important to have a deep understanding of the fundamental and salient features behind this technology, which is key to highly accurate and sensitive application requirements.


1 Introduction Communication Theory and the importance of Optical Fiber Communication: Amplitude modulation, Phase and Frequency Modulation, Pulse modulation, Bandwidth, Information Carrying Capacity, Evolution of Communication and need to switch to optical domain

2 Ray analysis of optical fiber: Propagation mechanism of rays in an optical fiber, Meridional rays, Skew rays, Fiber numerical aperture, dispersion, concept of modes.

3 Electromagnetic (modal) analysis of Step-index multimode fibers: Wave equation and boundary conditions, Characteristics equation, TE, TH and Hybrid modes, Weakly guiding approximation, linearly polarized modes, Single mode fiber, V parameter, Power confinement and mode cutoff, Mode field diameter.

4 Graded-index fiber: Modal analysis of graded index fiber, Optimum profile, Single mode-operation.

5 Loss mechanism in optical fiber: Absorption loss, scattering loss, bending loss, splice loss

6 Experimental techniques in fiber optics: Fiber fabrication (OVD, VAD, MCVD). Fiber cabling.

7 Pulse propagation, Dispersion and chirping in single-mode fibers: Pulse propagation in non-dispersive and dispersive medium, Pulse broadening and chirping, Group and phase velocity, Intermodal and intramodal dispersion, Group velocity (material and waveguide) dispersion, Higher order dispersion, Polarization mode dispersion, Fiber bandwidth.

8 Fiber based devices: Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers and lasers, Fiber Bragg gratings, Chirped Fiber Bragg Grating.

9 Dispersion compensation mechanism: Dispersion-tailored and dispersion compensating fibers, Dispersion compensation using Chirped Fiber Bragg Grating.

10 Nonlinear effects in optical fiber: Self Phase Modulation, Cross Phase Modulation, Four-wave mixing, Introduction to Optical Soliton.

Taught by

Sunil Khijwania


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