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Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Ironmaking and Steelmaking

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur and NPTEL via Swayam

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The emphasis on extractive metallurgy including ironmaking and steelmaking has been diluted significantly to accommodate newer courses on structure, properties and processing of different kinds of advanced materials. The number of faculty members in this discipline has also shrunk significantly in recent years. Ironmaking and steelmaking has been clubbed as single subject and even in some institute the subject has lost its core subject status and offered as an elective only. This is in contrary to the fact that India is going to be the second largest producer of crude steel in the world. Besides, after globalization of market, we stand in cut-through competition for day to day innovation in steel processing. Based on changing scenario a conceptual, fundamental and more quantitative course is desirable. Keeping in view of the above consideration, the course has been designed.

INTENDED AUDIENCE :Metallurgy, Mechanical, Chemical
PREREQUISITES :NoneINDUSTRIES SUPPORT :HEC, Ranchi; Tata Steel, Jamshedpur; SAIL Steel plants; RINL steel Plant, JSW



Week 1:Introduction: Various routes of modern steel making (BF-BOF, DRI-EAF, SR).Blast furnace Ironmaking: Shape of the furnace, Various reactions and zones in the blast Furnace Thermodynamics of Iron making, Direct & indirect reduction .Blast Furnace as an efficient counter current gas solid reactor and maximum carbon efficiency.Week 2:Overall heat and Material Balance in Blast Furnace.Rist Diagram based on oxygen balance,Rist Diagram based on heat & Material balance Week 3:Blast Furnace as a two stage reactor. Predictive model for coke rate in blast furnace.Week 4:Aerodynamics in Blast Furnace (pressure drop, fluidization, channeling, Flooding).
Week 5:Burden preparation (sintering, pelletization, coke making). Testing of raw materials Week 6:Burden distribution in Blast Furnace.Auxiliary injection, fuel efficiency and productivity in Blast furnace.Week 7:Thermodynamics of steelmaking. Introduction to LD steel making (process, emulsion, decarburization, catch carbon technique, impurity & slag evolution)Week 8:Hybrid steel making. Modern EAF/IF steel making.Secondary Steel making: Thermodynamics & kinetics of deoxidation
Week 9:Secondary steel making: Vacuum treatment of steel and processes, gas stirring.Week 10:Secondary Steel making: Ladle desulphurization, inclusion modification by calcium treatment. Inclusion control by optimizing upstream operating parameters.Week 11:Heat transfer and segregation during casting. Ingot casting, continuous casting, defects in steel. Week 12:Alternative routes of iron & steel making (Rotary kiln, Corex, Midrex)

Taught by

Prof. Gour Gopal Roy



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