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Online Course

Joining Technologies for Metals

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee and NPTEL via Swayam


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It is proposed to include following joining technologies of commercial importance under different groups of processes A) Fundamentals of Metal Joining Technologies: mechanisms for obtaining metallic continuity: fusion, deformation, diffusion, chemical interactions B) Fusion based processes: principle of fusion welding processes, oxy-fuel has welding, common arc welding processes, laser beam welding, spot welding processes, newer variants of fusion welding processes C) Solid-liquid joining processes: brazing and soldering, braze welding, cold metal transfer welding, D) Solid state joining processes: diffusion bonding, ultrasonic welding and explosive welding and E) Adhesive joining: design, procedure, and applications F) Metallurgical Aspects of Welding: weld thermal cycle, solidification of weld metal, weldability of carbon steel, alloys steel, stainless steels, and aluminium alloys, Fe-C, CCT and schaffler diagram for understanding the metallurgical transformation in weld and heat affected zone., basics of residual stresses G) Common issues related with joining technologies their causes and remedies: hardening and softening of heat affected zone, porosity, cracking.


Week 1: Introduction: Manufacturing and Joining 
Fundamental Mechanisms of joining, heat and pressure in joining 
Classification of joining processes, 
Heat generation and power density concept in welding 
Protection of the weld metal approaches, effect of gases on weld properties

Week 2: Principle of fusion welding processes, oxy-fuel gas welding 
Fundamentals of welding: type of weld, types of joint, welding position, arc heat generation 
Physics of welding arc: arc initiation, maintenance, shielded metal arc welding 
Electrode melting rate, effect of electrode  polarity and welding parameters    
Gas tungsten arc welding: electrode, shielding gases, Introduction of gas metal arc welding

Week 3: Variants of Gas tungsten arc welding: GTAW, Hot wire GTAW, Flux assisted GTAW  
Variants of Gas metal arc welding: Pulse GMAW, CMT welding  
Submerged arc welding 
Electro-slag and Electro-gas welding processes
Laser beam welding

Week 4: Brazing 
Soldering and Braze welding, 
Fundamentals of resistance welding 
Resistance welding processes: spot, seam welding  
Flash butt welding

Week 5: Adhesive joining
Welding bonding
Solid state joining technologies: Fundamentals 
Ultrasonic joining 
Diffusion bonding

Week 6: Explosive welding
Magnetic pulse welding 
Weld thermal cycle 
Heat affected zone and weld thermal cycle: I 
Heat affected zone and weld thermal cycle: II

Week 7: Solidification of weld metal
Fundamentals of weldability of metals 
Weldability of carbon & alloy steels: Fe-C, CCT 
Weldability of stainless steels:  schaeffler diagram 
Metallurgical transformation in weld and heat affected zone of steels

Week 8: Weldability of aluminium alloys: porosity, HAZ softening, PMZ issues    
Solidification cracking and their control 
Residual stresses in weld joints: effect on joint performance, and control of residual stress   
Cracking of welded joints: solidification and liquation cracks 
Cracking of welded joint: cold cracking  

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