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Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur

Machining Science

Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur and NPTEL via Swayam

Overview

Introduction : Machining; Plastic Deformation, Tensile Test, Stress and Strain; Mechanism of Plastic Deformation: Slips, defects, plastic deformation on atomic scale. Machining Process : Types of machining processes; Chip formation; Orthogonal and Oblique Cutting; Types of Chips; Built-up edge formation. Tool Geometry : Reference planes; Tool specification: American System (ASA), continental or Orthogonal System (ORS), International or Normal Rake system (NRS); Tool angle relationships in ORS, ASA and NRS; Selection of Tool Angles; Multiple-point cutting tools: twist drill, helical milling cutter. Mechanics of Metal Cutting : Merchant's Circle Diagram; Co-efficient of Friction: Determination of stress, strain and strain rate; Measurement of shear angle; Thin Zone model: Lee and Shaffer's Relationship; Thick Zone model: Okushima and Hitomi Analysis Friction in Metal Cutting : Nature of sliding friction; Friction in Metal Cutting: Sticking and Sliding Zones, Analysis of Stress Distribution on the tool face: Zorev’s model; Determination of mean angle of friction. Mechanism of Oblique cutting : Rake angles in oblique cutting: Analytical determination of Normal Rake angle, velocity rake angle and effective rake angle; their relationship; shear angles in oblique cutting; velocity relationship; Force relationships in oblique cutting. Practical Machining Operations : Turning, shaping and planning, Slab milling, Drilling: Machining Parameters, force magnitudes, power consumption, material removal rate, time per pass. Measurement of cutting Forces : Basic methods of measurement: Axially Loaded members, Cantilever Beam, Rings and Octagon, dynamometer requirements; machine tool dynamometers. Tool Material, Tool Wear and Tool Life : Types of tool wear; Mechanisms of wear: Abrasion, Adhesion and Diffusion. Progressive tool wear: flank and crater wear. Tool Life: variables affecting tool life - cutting conditions, tool geometry, Types of tool materials, fabrication of cutting inserts, coatings, work material and cutting fluid; Machinability and their criteria. Abrasive Machining Processes: Processes and analyses Economics of Machining: determination of optimal cutting conditions for minimum cost, maximum production rate and maximum profit rate Thermal Aspects of Machining: analytical determination of temperature in the shear zone and the chip-tool contact area Surface finish: comparison and analytical determination of surface finish in turning, milling and grinding INTENDED AUDIENCE : Mechanical Engineering, Metallurgy, Aerospace Engineering, Production Engineering PREREQUISITES : Basic Manufacturing Engineering Courses INDUSTRY SUPPORT : All Manufacturing industries, Machine tool manufacturing industries, Automobile Industries and aeronautical industries

Syllabus

Week 1 : Machining; Plastic Deformation, Tensile Test, Stress and Strain; Mechanism of Plastic Deformation: Slips, defects, plastic deformation on atomic scale; Types of machining processes; Chip formation; Orthogonal and Oblique Cutting; Types of Chips; Built-up edge formation; Tool specification; Tool angle relationships in ORS and ASA and NRS; Selection of Tool Angles; Multiple-pointcutting tools: twist drill, helical milling cutter.Week 2 : Merchant's Circle Diagram; Co-efficient of Friction: Determination of stress, strain and strain rate; Measurement of shear angle; Thin Zone model: Lee and Shaffer's Relationship; Thick Zone model: Okushima and Hitomi Analysis; Nature of sliding friction; Friction in Metal Cutting: Sticking and Sliding Zones, Determination of mean angle of frictionWeek 3 : Mechanism of Oblique Cutting: Normal Rake angle, velocity rake angle and effective rake angle; shear angles; velocity relationship; Force relationships in oblique cutting; Practical Marching Processes: Turning, shaping and planning, Slab milling, Drilling: Machining Parameters, force magnitudes, power consumption, material removal rate, time per pass.Week 4 : Measurement of Cutting Forces: Basic methods of measurement: Axially Loaded members, Cantilever Beam, Rings and Octagon, dynamometer requirements; machine tool dynamometers; Types of tool wear; Mechanisms of wear: Abrasion, Adhesion and Diffusion. Progressive tool wear: flank and crater wear. Tool Life: variables affecting tool life - cutting conditions, tool geometry, Types of tool materials, fabrication of cutting inserts, coatings, work material and cutting fluid; Machinability and their criteria. Abrasive Machining Processes; Oblique Cutting; Economics of Machining; Thermal Aspects of Machining; Surface Finish.

Taught by

Prof. Sounak Kumar Choudhury

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