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Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Steel Quality: Role of Secondary Refining & Continuous Casting

Indian Institute of Technology Madras and NPTEL via Swayam


Quality of steel plays an important role in imparting the specific application requirements to the product. Cleanliness as well as absence of defects are two broad facets of the quality of a steel product. Aim of this course is to give a brief introduction to the importance of secondary refining and continuous casting in achieving the desirable cleanliness and surface quality of cast and hot rolled steels

INTENDED AUDIENCE: Undergraduate, post graduate and graduate students of Metallurgical and MaterialsPRE REQUISITE : NilINDUSTRY SUPPORT : All steel producers and users will be interested in this course



Week 1 : Concept of steel quality , Typical examples of common defectsWeek 2 : Present scenario of quality demands , Application-specific requirements of residuals and NMIsWeek 3 : Limitation of primary steelmaking , Importance of different secondary refining processesWeek 4 : Requirement of Calcium injection , Cleanliness measures in tundish and mouldWeek 5 : Nature and distribution of exogenous entrapments in casting, their sourcesWeek 6 : Role of caster & casting process on quality , Cast structure and dendrite sizeWeek 7 : Role of mould oscillation , Effect of steel chemistry and segregationWeek 8 : Deleterious effect of P and S , Role of strength & toughness of solid shellWeek 9 : Factors responsible for bulging vis-a-vis depression behaviour , Brittle temperature regions for different steel gradesWeek 10 : Influence of secondary cooling on cast quality , Typical cracks and other defectsWeek 11 : Remedial measures to control quality issues , Grade-specific casting parametersWeek 12 : Identification of genesis of quality problems through metallurgical investigation

Taught by

Prof. Santanu Kr. Ray

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