What you'll learn:
- Learn Advance Programming Concepts in C/C++
- Develop and Integrate C/C++ Libraries
- Automate Build Process using Makefile
- Use of Function Pointers as Callbacks
- Static and Dynamic Libraries and Linking
- Compilation Process of a GCC Compiler
- Organize the code into Header and Source files
- Understanding Memory allocations, Heap Memory Management, Memory Leaks
- Stack Memory, Stack overflow, Stack Corruption, Stack Registers
- Paging Concepts and Page Tables
- Concept of TLVs
There are already innumerable courses/tutorials on the internet/Udemy which teach almost every aspect of C programming language. All those courses sound the same, talk the same and deliver more or less the same knowledge. How is this course different from others?
The intention of this course is to make you ready for System programming Technical interviews, interview level - from Beginner to Intermediate. This course is for (future) Developers, not for testers or System Administrators.
I choose to create this course to fill the gap between novice/beginner and intermediate/Advanced Programmers. This course assumes that you are at least above average in programming (in any programming language, but preferable in C/C++) - know memory allocations, all kinds of loops, function calls, pointers etc. In this course, I won't teach C/C++ (there are already many courses on it online) but would teach programming techniques and low-level details regarding how C program works behind the scenes - All topics are very important from an interview point of view. My Target is to grow this course into Linux/C Bible.
Yet, I always feel, you need to outsmart your fellow colleagues in this era of stiff competition, and therefore, I tried this attempt to present you the wisdom and knowledge which is of utmost importance for a programmer. I have seen though students could write good C/C++ programs, yet they lack the clarity on how one should write better organized, Manageable, extensible, and programmable codes in the form of libraries. For example, Students are too good at competitive programming, yet do not know how to write a simple Makefile, the reason being, Academics do not teach and students do not care to learn.
In this course, I will cover the topics related to creating Linux System Libraries (release 1) with Advanced language-agnostic Programming Concepts (release 2) which can be well applied if you happen to become a programmer in other languages tomorrow.
The Concepts like MultiThreading, Thread-Synchronization, Socket Programming, IPCs, etc demand a separate course on each topic altogether. Currently, I have a course on IPC, pls check it out. These topics are out of scope for this course.
The Course shall be delivered into two Releases :
Release 1 Building and Managing a Library: This covers the basics regarding how one should create and organize his code as a Library.
Release 2 Memory Management Concepts: This covers Advance concepts on Linux Memory Management specifically. Please check the Table of Contents for more info.
Why you should *NOT* do this course?
1. Please Excuse this course if you are the ultimate beginner in C programming !!
2. There is no point of doing this course if you don't like hitting the keyboard, and are lazy enough to watch lecture VDOs only
3. If you want everything cooked and served on your plate.
Course Pre-requisite :
Above Beginners Level in C/C++ programming
Good to have basic OS knowledge
Zeal to excel and Code
No Third-Party libraries
Whatever logic you implement, you need to implement it from scratch. Like all my other courses, this course does not suggest taking the help of any third-party library to get the jobs done. The use of external libraries completely defeats the purpose of the course.
Warning: This course has auto system-generated subtitles which may not be perfect. Please disable subtitles at your convenience.
Release 1 Building and Managing a Library
Section 1 : Introduction to Libraries
What is Library
Relationship between Library and Application
Ex : Doubly linked list as a Library
Quick Compilation Steps
Section 2 : Header Files
Relationship between Source and header files
Text Substitution Method
Text Substitution Method - Example and Demo
Section 3 : Preprocessing Directives
Problem of Duplicate inclusion of Hdr files
Solution to Duplicate inclusion of Hdr files
Section 4 : Correct way of Using Structures and Functions
Structures - Define and Use thumb Rule
Functions - Declare and Use thumb rule
The problem of Recursive Dependency
A solution to Recursive Dependency
Section 5 : Creation of Static and Dynamic Libraries
Resuming with Doubly Linked List Library
Quick Creation of Static and Dynamic Libraries
Linking with Static Library
Linking with Dynamic Library
Section 7: Understanding four stages of Compilation
Four stages of C/C++ Compilation
How Dynamic Library works ?
Dynamic Linking :Linking with Dynamic Library
Comparison - Static Vs Dynamic Linking
Section 8 : Building using a Makefile
What are Makefiles and why do we need it
Functions of Makefile
Makefile Dependency tree
Steps of Writing a Makefile
Assignment on Makefile
Section 9 : Run-time Programmable libraries
What are Programmable Libraries?
Steps to Program the libraries
Registering of the callbacks with Libraries
Delegation of Application-specific operations to Libraries
Section 10 : Writing Iterators using Macros
What are Iterative Macros ?
Why we need Iterative Macros ?
How to Write Iterative Macros - For Trees and Linked Lists
Section 11 : Glue Based Libraries and Data structures
What are the Glue Based Libraries?
Introducing Glthreads - A Glued LinkedList
Glthreads Vs Traditional Linked List
Structure field offset
Section 12 : Bit Level Programming
Implementing BIT manipulating C macros
Using Enums as Bits
Bit Pattern Matching
Release 2 Memory ManagementConcepts
Section 13 : Memory Layout of Linux Process
Virtual Memory Basics
Memory Layout of Linux Process
Example: Memory Layout of Linux Process
Exercise on size command
Section 14 : Stack Memory Management
Stack Memory Basics and Contents
Stack-Overflow and Prevention
Stack Memory Corruption
Common Cpu Registers
Procedure Call Mechanism - Step by Step
Purpose of Base Pointer register (ebp)
Procedure Return Mechanism - Step by Step
Section 15 : Heap Memory Management
Introduction and Goals
How Malloc Works
Top of Heap Memory region - break pointer
Heap Memory Mgmt Sys Calls - brk and sbrk
Meta and Data Blocks
How free() works
Memory Illness - Problem of Fragmentation
Section 16 : Concept of Paging
Introduction to Paging
Byte Addressable Memory
32 bit and 64 bit Machine Architecture
Address Bus and Data bus
Physical Vs Virtual Address
Physical Memory Frames
Virtual Address Composition
Paging In Action
Shared Physical Memory
Section 17 : Multilevel Paging
Section 18 : Demand Paging
Section 19 : Memory Management for Multi-threaded Process
The intention of this course is to make you ready for System programming Technical interviews from beginners to upto 8-9 yrs of experience.
Q. What are the frequently asked questions by interviewers in a technical round when someone writes C/C++/System Programming language on their resume?
Answer : If i am interviewer, what questions i would ask depends on his no of years of experience in C.
1–3 yrs of experience — I would have asked:
design a Macro to return the size of the structure
Two Dimensional Arrays, passing and returning arrays from a fn
Different stages of C program compilation
how fork() works
What are various ways to debug memory corruptions.
Heap and Stack memory-based Question
4–6 yrs of experience - I would have asked:
How memory is allocated by the OS
Internal and external fragmentation, what can be done to avoid it
System calls, strace()
Trade-of of one IPC over other
various ways to communicate with kernel and comparison
Data (De)Serialization in C
RPC in C
callbacks advanced application
typedef Vs #define
Generic programming in C using macros
Heap and Stack memory-based Question
7+ yrs of experience - I would have asked
Have you designed any system module to solve any problem
Design thread library 0 what functionalities would you incorporate in and how?
What are Dos and Dont’s for writing a robust and flexible library
How to write generic code in C
Various ways to implement timers in C, and comparison of approaches
How do Interrupts work ?
IPCs and comparison
How would you convert a C code to C++ and vice versa
How to write a tool to detect memory leaks Or garbage collection
Design your own memory allocation tool. Why would you write your own memory allocation scheme?
When to go for Multi-process design over Multi-threaded design and vice versa
How ValGrind tool works
In production code, would you favor recursive but simple logic, Or Nonrecursive but complex logic, and why?
If you analyze the pattern,
Candidate with 1–3 yrs of experience, I would choose to ask more of a direct and straightforward Questions.
Candidate with 4–6 yrs of experience, I would choose to ask more advanced technical C Question plus some comparison of approaches based Questions
Candidate with 7+ yrs of experience, I would choose to ask more of a design and Analysis based Question.
Note that, since the Question pertains to C and System Programming, so I have not mentionedData structures and Algorithms.