Properties of light, Image formation. Magnification and resolution. Depth of field,focus and field of view. Lens defects,filters and light microscopy introduction. Optical microscope demo., Bright field imaging, opaque specimen illumination. Opaque stop microscopy, Phase contrast microscopy. Dark field microscopy, Polarization microscopy. Differential interference contrast and fluorescence microscopy. Sample preparation techniques for optical microscopy. Tutorial problems. continuation-Tutorial problems. Introduction to scanning electron Microscopy. Lens aberrations, Object resolution, Image quality. Interaction between electrons and sample, Imaging capabilities. SEM and its mode of operation, Effect of aperture size,Working distance,condenser lens strength. SEM and its mode of operation- continuation. Factors affecting Interaction volume, Demonstration of SEM. Image formation and interpretation. Image formation and interpretation continued, EDS, WDS. Special contrast mechanisms, Monte Carlo simulations of Interaction volume. Electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI), (EBSD)-Theory & instrument demonstration. Tutorial Problems on SEM. Basics of X-ray emission from source, electron excitation and X-ray interaction. Properties of X-rays. Bragg's Law Derivation. Diffraction relationship with reciprocal space. X-ray scattering. Factors affecting intensities of X-ray peaks. Factors affecting intensities of X-ray peaks- continuation. Effect of crystallite size and strain on intensity of X-rays. Profile fit, Factors affecting peak brodening. Indexing of diffraction pattern, Quantitative analysis. Indexing, Quantitative analysis-continuation, Residual stress measurements. XRD and Residual stress measurement- lab demonstration. Introduction to Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Fundementals of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Basics of Diffraction-1. Basics of Diffraction-2. TEM imaging-1. TEM imaging-2. TEM instrument demonstration. TEM sample preparation-1-. TEM sample preparation-2.