This is a course about the Fibonacci numbers, the golden ratio, and their intimate relationship. In this course, we learn the origin of the Fibonacci numbers and the golden ratio, and derive a formula to compute any Fibonacci number from powers of the golden ratio. We learn how to add a series of Fibonacci numbers and their squares, and unveil the mathematics behind a famous paradox called the Fibonacci bamboozlement. We construct a beautiful golden spiral and an even more beautiful Fibonacci spiral, and we learn why the Fibonacci numbers may appear unexpectedly in nature.
The course lecture notes, problems, and professor's suggested solutions can be downloaded for free from
Course Overview video: https://youtu.be/GRthNC0_mrU
Fibonacci: It's as easy as 1, 1, 2, 3
-We learn about the Fibonacci numbers, the golden ratio, and their relationship. We derive the celebrated Binet's formula, an explicit formula for the Fibonacci numbers in terms of powers of the golden ratio and its reciprical.
Identities, sums and rectangles
-We learn about the Fibonacci Q-matrix and Cassini's identity. Cassini's identity is the basis for a famous dissection fallacy colourfully named the Fibonacci bamboozlement. A dissection fallacy is an apparent paradox arising from two arrangements of different area from one set of puzzle pieces. We also derive formulas for the sum of the first n Fibonacci numbers, and the sum of the first n Fibonacci numbers squared. Finally, we show how to construct a golden rectangle, and how this leads to the beautiful image of spiralling squares.
The most irrational number
-We learn about the golden spiral and the Fibonacci spiral. Because of the relationship between the Fibonacci numbers and the golden ratio, the Fibonacci spiral eventually converges to the golden spiral. You will recognise the Fibonacci spiral because it is the icon of our course. We next learn about continued fractions. To construct a continued fraction is to construct a sequence of rational numbers that converges to a target irrational number. The golden ratio is the irrational number whose continued fraction converges the slowest. We say that the golden ratio is the irrational number that is the most difficult to approximate by a rational number, or that the golden ratio is the most irrational of the irrational numbers. We then define the golden angle, related to the golden ratio, and use it to model the growth of a sunflower head. Use of the golden angle in the model allows a fine packing of the florets, and results in the unexpected appearance of the Fibonacci numbers in the head of a sunflower.