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# Global Warming I: The Science and Modeling of Climate Change

## Overview

##### Class Central Tips
This class describes the science of global warming and the forecast for humans’ impact on Earth’s climate. Intended for an audience without much scientific background but a healthy sense of curiosity, the class brings together insights and perspectives from physics, chemistry, biology, earth and atmospheric sciences, and even some economics—all based on a foundation of simple mathematics (algebra).

## Syllabus

• Overview
• What you will find in this class.
• Heat, Light, and Energy
• A primer on how to use units to describe numbers when describing temperature, energy, and light. Even if you don't plan on doing calculations yourself, understanding how units work will help to follow the rest of the lectures in the class. If you are interested in practicing your analysis skills, using units to guide calculations, there are some exercises in the Part II of this class.
• First Climate Model
• The balance of energy flow, as incoming sunlight and outgoing infrared, allow us to create our first simple climate model, including a simple greenhouse effect. There are two extended exercises in Part II of this class, one an analytical (algebraic) model of the equilibrium temperature of a planet, the other a numerical model of how that temperature might evolve through time.
• Greenhouse Gases and the Atmosphere
• The Layer Model above assumes that the pane of glass representing the atmosphere absorbs all of the infrared radiation that hits it and that it radiates at all infrared wavelengths. In other words, the layer model atmosphere is an infrared blackbody, but transparent in the visible. In reality, greenhouse gases are not "black" at all; they are very choosy about which frequencies of light they absorb and emit. This selective absorption of infrared light by greenhouse gases leads to the band saturation effect, which makes rare, trace gases like methane disproportionally powerful relative to higher-concentration gases like CO₂.
• The Structure of the Atmosphere
• The greenhouse effect works because the air in the upper atmosphere is colder than the ground, so that absorption and re-emission of IR by greenhouse gases decreases the amount of energy leaving the planet to space. Here we explore the physics responsible for keeping the upper atmosphere cold.
• Weather and Climate
• Another property of the real world, missing in our model so far, is that the real world is not everywhere the same temperature, and the heat fluxes to and from space do not necessarily balance at any given time or location. This is because the winds in the atmosphere and the currents in the ocean carry heat around, in general from the hot tropics up to the cold high latitudes.
• Feedbacks
• Feedbacks are loops of cause-and-effect that can either stabilize Earth's climate or amplify future climate changes. There is an exercise in Part II of this class where you solve for a planet's temperature by iteration, and in the process demonstrate a runaway ice albedo feedback that might have led to the Snowball Earth climate state 700 million years ago.
• The Carbon Cycle
• Now we shift gears in a major way — away from climate physics (you now have seen its main ingredients) to the emergent miracle that is the carbon cycle on Earth. Not only is carbon the chemical element of life, it is also the means of storing life's energy. We will look at how carbon cycles through the land, the oceans, and the deep earth, going in and out of the atmosphere -- and how that stabilizes the earth's climate.
• The Perturbed Carbon Cycle
• On the carbon locked up in fossil fuels and what happens when we burn those fuels. In Part II of this class, you can create a simple but somewhat realistic model of Earth's temperature evolution in the coming decades, in response to the release of CO2 (or in the sudden stop of emissions in a scenario called "The world without us").
• Looking for a Human Impact on Climate
• You have now seen the ideas behind the forecast for a human impact on Earth's climate. The next question is: Do we see it happening today? It turns out that the "smoking gun" for a human impact on climate is the global average temperature record since about the 1970's. In order to interpret that temperature change, we need to consider it within the context of natural climate changes in Earth's geologic past.
• Potential Impacts
• This unit we focus on the potential impacts of continued business-as-usual CO2 emissions. This is also the topic of the Working Group 2 volume of the IPCC reports (the Working Group 1 report is on the scientific basis, which is what we've been studying so far this course). You may find this material distressing, but hang on, because next week we'll go over "Mitigation", which is what it takes to avoid climate change (treated in the Working Group 3 report). Remember that most of the carbon we're worried about is still in the ground, so these impacts are inevitable only if we continue to decide to make them so. In Part II of this class, you can create a simple ice sheet model of your own.
• Mitigation
• The last unit of the class finds us considering the options for avoiding, or "mitigating," a human impact on Earth's climate. Bottom line: I think it would be a challenge that humankind could beat if we decided to. If there hypothetically were no more coal on Earth, our potential to alter the climate would be much less. Finding energy sources in that world would not be an existential threat would just be a business opportunity. The hard part, in my opinion, is making that decision.

David Archer

## Reviews

4.4 rating, based on 9 reviews

Start your review of Global Warming I: The Science and Modeling of Climate Change

• Sara J. Carvajal is taking this course right now, spending 2 hours a week on it and found the course difficulty to be medium.

It has a great content and the teacher gives good explanations but in the quizzes you have to use climate models from certain websites and if you have a very slow internet connection (like me) sometimes they just don't work, that means you don't have the answer to the questions and that is frustrating.
• Andresmldnd41
1

Andresmldnd41 completed this course.

I am Luis Andrés Maldonado Forero. I from Colombia. I am an environmental engineer, with the desire to design models that mitigate environmental impacts.
• Ghazi Akbar
Can someone who completed this course about the answer of quiz of week #12

Q: How many wegdes ??

I am struck here for one week just a single question remaining
• James Ghaffari completed this course, spending 2 hours a week on it and found the course difficulty to be hard.

This is a great course for the non-scientist to understand the scientific mechanism and models behind climate change. I requires quite a bit of work but the lecturer explains things extremely well. Overall, some of the quizzes could be better thought through but this is a very good MOOC.
• Anonymous

Anonymous completed this course.

I am very intereston know about the climate changes of our earth since I learn and discover great things that wr dont know about our planet. Sincerely yours Vivi de Deleon.
• HERNANDO MANTILLA GAITÁN completed this course, spending 5 hours a week on it and found the course difficulty to be medium.

I am an environmental engineer from Colombia and I wish to complement the updated technical information for the topic of global warming
• David Lee Frank is taking this course right now.

• Samuel is taking this course right now, spending 2 hours a week on it and found the course difficulty to be easy.

This course is so helpful and well prepared to aid easy laerning. I found the quizzes so helpful too and the tests at the end of the session
• Vijaysinh Jadhav completed this course.

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