This course introduces the basics of Earth’s atmosphere to graduate and post-graduate students.It starts from the evolution of atmosphere and gives understanding of various physical and chemical processes responsible for the observed changes we see in weather and climate. It gives a comprehensive understanding of neutral atmosphere, ionosphere and various plasma processes. This course will introduce the fundamentals of the various interrelations in atmospheric and space physics, the basic scientific methods and techniques.
INTENDED AUDIENCE : M.Sc (Physics), MSc (Chemistry),
M.Tech (Atmospheric Science),
B.Tech (Civil), B.Tech (Mechanical),
PREREQUISITES : BSc level Physics / B.Tech (I) level Physics course
INDUSTRY SUPPORT : ISRO, CSIR, DRDO
Week 1 : Atmospheric evolution, solar radiation, present day atmospheric constituents, various stages in the evolution of earth’s
atmosphere, formation of ozone, carbon budget, oxygen chemistry and life on earth.
Week 2 : Variation of temperature with height, density and ionization with altitude, classification of atmosphere based on
temperature and pressure, hydrostatic equation, hypsometric equation
Week 3 : Fundamental forces, non-inertial forces, momentum equations governing the motions in atmosphere, curvature effect,
various scales of atmospheric motions.
Week 4 : Thermodynamics of earth’s atmosphere, humidity variables, moist air, potential and virtual temperatures, air parcel
theory, adiabatic expansion of unsaturated air, various lapse rates, vertical mixing of atmosphere,
Week 5 : Stability of atmosphere, buoyancy effects, expressing stability in various parameters, thermodynamic diagrams,
convective available potential energy,atmospheric radiation, saturated lapse rate and significance in thermodynamic variables
Week 6 : Atmospheric absorption and greenhouse effect, atmospheric aerosols, origin and characterization of aerosols,
physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols, cloud condensation nuclei
Week 7 : Forced lifting of air, cloud formation and growth, cloud morphology, growth of cloud droplets, terminal velocity of rain droplets
Week 8 : Physics of lightening, radiative transfer and budget, atmospheric equations of motion, atmospheric absorption, albedo
Week 9 : Earth’s upper atmosphere, Ionosphere, various layers and chemistry of ionosphere, types of reactions,
Week 10 : Composite F layer, single particle motion in homogeneous fields
Week 11 : Single particle motion in in homogeneous electric and magnetic fields
Week 12 : Chapman’s theory of layer production, airglow and aurora, Earth’s magnetosphere, reconnection and measurement
techniques using ground based and space borne instruments.