Fundamental laws of nature, system definitions and applications. Thermodynamic property, state, equilibrium and process. Temperature scale and pressure. Macroscopic and microscopic forms of energy. Different forms of work, energy transfer and sign convention. First law of thermodynamics and energy balance. Efficiency of mechanical and electrical devices. Examples on basic concept and energy balance. Phase change of a pure substance. Property diagrams of pure substances. Thermodynamic properties of a pure substance from a property table. Thermodynamic properties of a pure substance. Equations of state and compressibility chart. Examples on properties of pure substances. Quasi equilibrium, moving boundary work. Polytropic process. Energy analysis of closed system and unrestrained expansion. Internal energy, enthalpy, and specific heats of ideal gas. Internal energy, enthalpy, and specific heats of solids and liquids. Examples on energy balance for closed systems and moving boundary work. Conservation of mass and steady flow processes. Flow work and energy of flowing fluid. Energy balance for steady flow devices. Throttling valve, mixing chamber and heat exchanger. Energy analysis of steady and unsteady flow devices. Examples on mass and energy analysis of open systems. Second law of thermodynamics, heat engine and cyclic devices. COP of refrigerator and heat pump, second law statements. Perpetual motion machines, reversible and irreversible processes, Carnot cycle. Carnot principles, thermodynamic temperature scale, Carnot HE and HP. Examples on second law of thermodynamics. Clausius inequality, application of second law. Entropy, increase in entropy principle, isentropic process. Change in entropy of solids, liquids and ideal gases. Reversible flow work, multistage compressor, efficiency of pump and compressors. Entropy balance in closed system and control volume. Examples on entropy change in a system. Exergy and second law efficiency. Exergy of a fixed mass and flowing stream. Exergy transfer due to heat, mass and work, exergy destruction. Exergy balance and second law efficiency for closed systems and steady flow devices. Examples related to exergy change and exergy destruction. Gas power cycles and air-standard assumptions. An overview of reciprocating engines and otto cycle. Analysis of Diesel cycle. Analysis of Brayton cycle. Examples on gas power cycles such as Otto, Diesel and Brayton. Rankin and Carnot vapour power cycles. Ideal regenerative Rankin cycle and combined gas-vapour cycle. Refrigeration cycles. Examples on vapour power cycles. Thermodynamic property relations: Gibbs equation, Mnemonic diagrams and reciprocity relations. Thermodynamic property relations: Clapeyron equation and Maxwell relations. Thermodynamic property relations: Joule-Thomson coefficient and cyclic relations. Combustion and conservation of mass in a chemical reaction. Energy balance for reacting systems. Enthalpy of formation and combustion, adiabatic flame temperature. Examples on property relations and reaction thermodynamics.