- Does this hypothesis clash with the evidence we have or is it consistent with the evidence?
- Is this argument watertight, or do we need to add more to make the conclusion to really follow from the premises?
- Do these two sentences say the same things in different ways, or do they say something subtly different?
- Does this information follow from what’s in this database, and what procedure could we use to get the answer quickly?
- Is there a more cost-effective design for this digital circuit? And how can we specify what the circuit is meant to do so we could check that this design does what we want?
This subject follows from Logic: Language and Information 1, to cover core techniques in first order predicate logic: the idea of formal languages with quantifiers, which gives us a way to talk about more logical structure than in propositional logic; and we will cover the central logical concepts such as consistency and validity; models; and proofs in predicate logic. But you won’t only learn these concepts and tools. We will also explore how these techniques connect with issues in linguistics, computer science, electronic engineering, mathematics, and philosophy.